In Malaysia, it is reported that more than 3900 people have a skin condition known as psoriasis . This autoimmune related disease is characterised by distinctive scaly plaques due to chronic inflammation. These red, raised, scaly plaques typically manifest on the elbows, knees and scalp. The plaques can be itchy or sore, or both. In severe cases, the skin around the joints may crack and bleed, causing the patients to feel discomfort and in pain. On top of that, the inflammation can flare up unexpectedly.
Psoriasis happens when your own immune system mistakes your healthy skin cells (keratinocytes) for foreign invaders, like virus and bacteria. As a result, your immune system creates inflammation and swelling. In a healthy human body, it usually takes up to 30 days for new skin cells to regenerate and replace old skin cells. Unfortunately, due to the over-reactive immune system in patients with psoriasis, the timeline of new skin cell development is shortened to only three to four days. Hence, the speed of new cells replacing the old cells is what creates the scales and leads to frequent skin shedding. Until today, the main cause of the over stimulated immunity is yet to be known. Although researches did find that they might linked to genetics , but further study and research are needed to confirm the statement.
Treatment options for patients with psoriasis generally ranging from topical creams to systematic drugs and phototherapy. Regardless, there is still no cure for this disease. However, recently, the use of natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell therapy among psoriasis patients have been found helpful in controlling the severity of the inflammation of the skin and the relapse of such condition. The main purpose of this immune cell therapy is said to provide a better quality of life for patients. There is mounting evidence that these cells play a huge role in the pathogenesis of the disease . One of it include secretion of cytokines, which are small soluble protein that act as immunological regulators. For instance, IL-15 cytokines help to sustain inflammatory responses, promote angiogenesis and suppress apoptosis. Furthermore, NK and NKT cells receptor also play a role in maintaining the immune reaction in patients with autoimmune diseases. These receptors interact with HLA class 1 antigen expressed on the surface of all nucleated cells. Activated receptors will activate the cell functions, while inhibitory receptors will inhibit the cell from processing any reactions. This key role is very important in managing the over-stimulated immunity by keeping the immune cells in check.
Besides getting the treatment in line, it is also very crucial for psoriasis patients to control their stress level because stress may disturb the immunity balance. Patients usually are advised to lower their stress level by exercising, meditation or talking to a mental health professional. In addition, patients should avoid using any soaps that contain harsh chemicals, and moisturize their skin regularly, especially after shower. It is important to maintain the pH level and moisture of your skin so that it will not cause further damage. Avoid scratching with your nails as it may cause the wound to be opened up and increase the chances of getting infections. Eating a well-balanced diet and have adequate sleep will also help with your immunity.
For more information about NK and NKT cell therapy, you can visit our website at https://nk-cell.com.my/
- Choon SE, Wright AK, Griffiths CEM, Tey KE, Wong KW, Lee YW, Suvelayutnan U, Mariapun J, Ashcroft DM; Global Psoriasis Atlas. Incidence and prevalence of psoriasis in multiethnic Johor Bahru, Malaysia: a population-based cohort study using electronic health data routinely captured in the Teleprimary Care (TPC®) clinical information system from 2010 to 2020: Classification: Epidemiology. Br J Dermatol. 2022 Nov;187(5):713-721. doi: 10.1111/bjd.21768. Epub 2022 Aug 8. PMID: 35830199; PMCID: PMC9804555.
- Liu Y, Krueger JG, Bowcock AM. Psoriasis: genetic associations and immune system changes. Genes Immun. 2007 Jan;8(1):1-12. doi: 10.1038/sj.gene.6364351. Epub 2006 Nov 9. PMID: 17093502.
- Dunphy, S., & Gardiner, C. M. (2011). NK cells and psoriasis. Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology, 2011, 248317. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/248317.